Study Guide for  Unit 2 - Inclusion & Diversity

To help you with this unit, there are practical sessions that you can observe, also you will have been sent a DVD recording of classes where adaptions of movement are important.

It is highly recommended that you attend at least one practical session, or attend the class held for those with reduced mobility particularly if you are not used to working with older people who have a range of disabilities. Classes are in Minehead on a Friday, sometimes in other locations as well, and you can either join in or observe. Please contact Vanessa if you would like to take up the offer.


All organisations have policies for inclusion & diversity.

If you work for the health service or local government do you know what their policy is?


 Mobility & Health

Your DVD already shows you two versions of Shibashi. One seated and one standing.

Seated Shibashi is suitable for:

  • Learners with reduced mobility.
  • Learners with little or no balance.
  • Learners whose health problem depletes their energy very easily.
  • Learners who otherwise could not carry out any type of exercise.

When teaching seated Shibashi it is important to remember:

  • The lower body, if possible, should still be employed in the movements. This can be achieved by changing weight on the seat and feet.
  • Ensure that learners do not lean too far forward in the chair.
  • Basic principles of correct body alignment should still apply.

Different health problems and reduced mobility in certain joints means that Shibashi movements will need to be adapted. For example: someone with arthritis in the shoulder or someone with a frozen shoulder will not easily be able to raise their arms above their head. The same would apply for people who have had a stroke.

Adaptations are usually common sense - so with reduced shoulder mobility, whatever the reason, you will need to lower the specific movement, keeping the arms below the shoulders rather than above.

It is recommended that Stroke victims move the affected arm with their other hand, if at all possible. We would suggest that maybe 3 repetitions are performed this way and 3 where they visualise the movement instead. 


Older or Disabled People

Here we are going to look at specialist groups.

Older people tend to suffer from reduced mobility more than younger people, so it will be important that you can adapt the movements in whatever way is necessary to enable participation. We have looked at how you can adapt to a seated version of the movements but now we are going to look at other ways of adapting the movements for these groups of people.

You could adapt the movements by the learners not raising onto the ball of the foot or just the simple adaptation of having a chair at hand.



For those learners who are being treated for blood pressure problems or who have gone through a cardiac rehab programme, but have the approval of their GP to attend classes must keep their heads above their hearts and not compress their chests if performing bending forward movements. With inclusion, health and safety is a very important issue and one that will need to be demonstrated in your final practical session. You also need to remember that unless you are qualified to do so, you cannot teach a cardiac or pulmonary rehab class.


As eyesight & hearing often declines with age, it is important that you understand the effects that this can have on those clients who have reduced eyesight or hearing. Sometimes of course, age has nothing to do with these disabilities.


Visually Impaired Learners

Learners with visual impairments are more dependant on their hearing for gathering information. For this reason it is important that your instructions can be heard! The main adaptation here is that the instructor needs to adapt rather than the learner!

As severely visually impaired (SVI) learners may well have problems with concepts such as distance, space, dimensions and direction, learning movements can often prove difficult and frustrating.
Instructions need to be precise and very clear, whether you are teaching SVI children or adults.


A Handout is provided to help you with this subject.
This can be downloaded and saved onto your computer.

Visual Impairment Handout.doc Visual Impairment Handout.doc
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NIACE have information and advice for inclusion of visually impaired learners. You may want to do a search of their site by going to .


Learners with Hearing Difficulties

Teaching learners with hearing difficulties requires careful placing of your learners for a session. Try to ensure that they can see you clearly and are not stood behind a taller learner! You might want to consider other ways that could be helpful to their learning. 


Working with Children


Working with children is essentially no different from working with adults where disabilities are concerned, although obviously the occurance of children with heart conditions or frozen shoulders will be far, far less.

Adaptions for reduced mobilty will be exactly the same - someone in a wheelchair has the same requirements whatever their age.


ADD & ADHD - Recent research and studies indicate that Tai Chi & Qigong can play a role in decreasing symptoms.

Tai Chi/Qigong is being undertaken at several schools in England with results proving that it not only has physical benefits, but positive effects on a child’s mental abilities were also recorded.

Tai Chi offers academic, behavioural and physical benefits both in the classroom and at home and it has already been recognised that this exercise could become a valuable addition to school activities.



Size : 66 Kb
Type : doc